Johannesburg, affectionately called Jo'burg, Jozi, and E'Goli, the "city of gold," is the financial and industrial metropolis of South Africa, built on a rich history of gold mining. South Africa's biggest city, began as a 19th-century gold-mining settlement. Its sprawling Soweto township was once home to Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu. Soweto museums, including the somber Apartheid Museum, recount the struggle to end segregation. The city is evolving into a vibrant hub for arts, music and culture, with the Maboneng Precinct and its cutting edge galleries ranked as one of the city’s top tourist attractions. Visitors can commune with wildlife at a popular lion park; stroll among the beautiful gardens and parks in Pretoria, the country's administrative capital; and explore the UNESCO-listed Cradle of Humankind, one of the richest paleoanthropological sites in the world.